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Endangered and Declining Species in the Aleutians: Are the Declines Driven by Changes in the Ecosystem or Human Interactions?

There are several high trophic level species that have been declining in abundance for well more than two decades in the Aleutian Islands, including the western stock of Steller sea lion, short-tailed albatross, Aleutian Canada goose, sea otters, and possibly harbor seals.  For many of these species the reasons for these declines are not well understood, but may include changes in prey availability due to fishing or ecosystem changes, contaminants and pollution, direct takes, habitat loss, trophic cascades, and predation.